CS 451 Architecture

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CS 451 Architecture

Catalog Description

Data representation, number systems and codes, gates and logic, combinational logic, sequential circuits, flip-flops, memory and storage, computer organization, microprogramming, architectures of supercomputers and micros. Prerequisite - C or better in CS 202 and CS 303.


Student must have knowledge of Programming and Elementary Data Structures and Boolean Algebra and Logic.

Standard Content

Course Outline

The course begins with a review of Logic Circuit Design: Combinational Circuits and Sequential Circuits. Covered topics include logic gates, decoders , encoders, multiplexers, ROMs, universal gates, adders, flip-flops, latches, Karnaugh Maps, equivalent states, counters, bit pattern detectors, incrementers, multipliers, etc. This is followed by the discussion of Instruction Set Architectures, and an example architecture: The Relatively Simple Computer. Basic Computer System Organization is considered : CPU, Memory, I/O units, Buses, Linear ad Two dimensional memory organizations. Hardware description using RTL and methods of implementing RTL code are described. Next is the coverage of CPU Design: Registers, Instruction Sets, State diagrams, RTL Code, design of register section, control units, ALUs, and generation of control signals are covered. This is the hardwired control approach. Also covered are Microprogrammed Control and its variations: Horizontal Microcode, Vertical Microcode, and string control signals in the ROM. Next comes the coverage of Cache memory organization, and virtual memory. Topics covered are associative memory, and the associative , direct and set associative mappings and LRU and FIFO cache replacement strategies, and a simulation and estimation of hit ratios. Paging is covered in detail for implementing virtual memory, and a brief coverage of segmentation is provided. Input/output is considered: polling, wait states, interrupt driven I/O, vectored interrupts, and Daisy Chaining, DMA transfers and transfer modes and I/O channels are covered. CISC and RISC computers and pipelining are covered next. Finally, an introduction to parallel and alternative computer architectures is given.

Learning Outcomes

A knowledge of the working of a simple computer.

Important Assignments and/or Exam Questions

Assignments include chapter summaries of textbook chapters ; pencil and paper quizzes are given over the course content.

Standard resources

Computer Systems Organization and Architecture by John D. Carpinelli (Addison-Wesley, 2000, ISBN-10: 0-201-61253-4)